how to find shed antlers

how to find shed antlers

I was addicted to antlers long before that find. Even in the park and with some big red stags among the herd you’ll have a job to find antlers. Investigate food sources. Here are some more interesting shed facts, along with tips to help you find more antlers when you hunt them in late winter and spring. Latest. ; Plenty of open space: You need plenty of room to work with and ensure your dog can find the antlers. I was intrigued. After the rut, bucks’ decreasing testosterone levels cause an “abscission layer” to form between antlers and their pedicles. Keep your training sessions short. Where to Start Looking for Shed Antlers. Shed hunt, that is. I don’t understand why some hunters don’t like searching for shed antlers. On public ground, get out early and often if you are dealing with two-legged shed hunters. I like to glass these areas once a week if possible. When you find one shed, you will often find sheds from other bucks in the same area. Kids. I love shed antlers — meaning, the antlers that the male deer “sheds” at the end of every mating season, late Winter and early Spring. Want to find more shed deer antlers? Elk shed hunting is not that unlike finding shed antlers of whitetails. After a few successful finds, your dog will associate the smell with a shed. Let’s say you’re in western cattle country. One other thing that most people forget is to bring something to carry the antler sheds in. By Andrew McKean, and Tony Hansen. This Shed Hunting Collection includes the first book devoted entirely to shed antler hunting, which is a fully illustrated, 160-page educational tool that teaches readers how to find shed white-tailed deer antlers. Investigate food sources. While bean fields are relatively easy areas to spot antlers, the same cannot be said for corn stubble fields. It's no different than actually hunting the animal. Fallow fields and freshly logged timber are also great places to comb for sheds. That's really all there is to training your dog to find antlers. The author's dog, Sage, sits beside a pair of prairie whitetail shed antlers from the previous year. Going out into the woods or fields to find sheds that bucks have no need for is a favorite hobby for some outdoors people. For centuries, dogs and people have hunted side-by-side. Plan your shed hunts where it’s easy to find sheds. Coniferous forests are prime bedding spots because the dense cover blocks the wind and the branches catch the snow before it hits the ground, making travel easier. 4. Scour bedroom cover. Kids are naturally curious and love scavenger hunts plus they are low to the ground and are more apt to spot an antler or part of antler than an adult. And over this course of time I’ve also heard more and more about people using dogs to help them find fallen antlers. What is wonderful about hunting for shed antlers is that, aside from the possibility of finding these beautiful specimens of nature, it encourages you to get outdoors and hike. I divide the bedding areas into two categories, the first is thermal cover and … Most bucks shed their velvet between mid-August and mid-September. This breed can be stubborn and difficult… 12 Secrets to Finding More Shed Antlers. Copyright © 2021 Outdoor Life. The Ultimate DIY Guide to Making Wild Game Jerky and Snack Sticks. Areas where I’ve found moose overwintering tend to have shorter trees due to the thinner soils, and consist of a natural patchwork of dense trees and openings. That means where you find one side of the deer antler shed, you have a good chance of finding the other nearby. Fallow fields and freshly logged timber are also great places to comb for sheds. Deer antlers are among the fastest-growing tissue known. The best places to find shed moose antlers are where moose spend the winter. In most cases, you should only need: Several antler sheds: You will need these for scent training your dog to recognize the smell of shed antlers. The last thing you want to do is go walking through their primary feeding grounds before the antlers hit the ground. You could bump them t… The author's dog, Sage, sits beside a pair of prairie whitetail shed antlers from the previous year. This how-to book covers the biology of how antlers grow and ultimately shed. In winter, the southern exposure receives the most direct sunlight, so check the south face of a hill or the south edge of a forest. Position your dog downwind of the hidden antler, and give the “Find the shed!” command. Looking at the pedicle seal depths for the entire dataset across eight years, Brian and Casey saw very little variation – except for antlers grown in 2012. Along with the GPS coordinates, record the size of the antlers you find. If you've hunted shed antlers you know the basics. Any elk hunter can tell you that the habits and movements of such a large animal are amazingly secretive. Scour bedroom cover. Walk Slowly: You’re trying to spot an object on the ground that looks a lot like a cornstalk or a stick. Winter is a rough time for whitetail bucks. Locating elk in these early spring months can often best be done from afar. More Hunting. As soon as one antler falls off, the buck often tries to knock the other antler off by brushing it up against a tree or low hanging branches. Finally, follow trails in … Here are some more interesting shed facts, along with tips to help you find more antlers when you hunt them in late winter and spring. Last year my golden retriever, Creo, who is trained to find shed antlers, located the right side to a 115″, 8-point buck in a funnel connecting a picked soybean field to a bedding area full of privet and devil’s walking sticks. It’s a good sign if most of the sheds you find each year look like the shed on the left, with a convex or protruding seal. In my experience, the best places to find shed antlers are the north edges of fields in which the deer were feeding during the peak antler-shedding period. That particular “horn” just helped fuel the passion. Check places where a deer could have lost its antlers. Snow Level: Finally you need to consider the impact that snow on the ground will have on your chances of actually finding sheds. While bean fields are relatively easy areas to spot antlers, the same cannot be said for corn stubble fields. They are run down from the rigors of the rut and they need energy to fight off the cold. Check Southern Exposures: Deer soak up the winter sun like a cat sitting in a windowsill. — Joe Shead is one of the World’s foremost shed hunting experts. Shed Hunting: A Guide to Finding White-Tailed Deer Antlers is the first and only book fully devoted to the increasingly popular hobby of looking for naturally shed antlers from deer and other antlered game.. Wear rubber gloves to avoid contaminating the shed with human scent, and then coat the antler’s base in the artificial scent and hide it. As the … How To: Shed Hunting Dog Training . : When it comes to identifying a shed antler, if you are looking for full antlers, there's a much better chance of missing opportunities to find … Outdoor Life may receive financial compensation for products purchased through this site. Neither one will be surprising … In winter, deer often shift from the areas they frequented in the fall to take advantage of changing food availability and winter cover. “But to wander around willy-nillyhoping to happen onto the headgear of that 10-pointer that ducked your shotlast fall will lead to nothing but frustration. Finally, follow trails in … If you've hunted shed antlers you know the basics. Find Areas With Low Hunting Pressure: Shed hunting won’t be very good on heavily hunted areas because few bucks survive to drop antlers. ; Plenty of open space: You need plenty of room to work with and ensure your dog can find the antlers. Every deer sheds its antlers and grows back larger ones the following season. Mule deer and elk often gather in wintering areas – making finding sheds easier but also increasing the threat to these animals. “Honestly, I can’t think of a better cure for cabin fever than getting out in the woods to hunt for shed antlers,” says Gordy Krahn, editor of Deer & Deer Hunting. This is where an ATV/UTV comes in handy. The reality of shed hunting is there is an infinite amount of ground to cover, but we only have a finite amount of time to walk. Focus on the ground. Check Beds: Deer spend a large amount of time in their beds to conserve energy in winter. In wooded areas, learn to identify which plants deer prefer to browse on in winter. Going out into the woods or fields to find sheds that bucks have no need for is a favorite hobby for some outdoors people. Always be positive and reward your dog with a treat and praise when they find an antler. 2. Useing a GPS to mark the coordinates of your finds will prove helpful on future deer hunts. The Ultimate DIY Guide to Making Wild Game Jerky and Snack Sticks. If you’ve hunted for shed antlers in the past, you know how difficult it can be. Whether you’re a duck hunter, pursue small game or want to find sheds after hunting season ends, it all starts with a quality dog breed.While most canines can be trained to track down antlers, here are a few shed hunting dog breeds you can’t go wrong with. Be sure to include your kids or grand kids on shed antler deer hunts. Scout: Just like deer hunting, scouting is essential to shed hunting. Take notes from these regional experts. However, in forests with lots of squirrels, such as oak forests, get out frequently. In fact, bedding areas are probably one of the best places to find shed antlers, period. But you will also almost certainly be competing with squirrels, mice and porcupines, which eat sheds for their calcium. Shed antlers can also be obtained from lands owned or controlled by the Game and Parks Commission. Often one field will draw all the deer while other fields are left untouched. Walk slowly and give your eyes time to process what you’re seeing. Obviously you want to search your hunting area to find out which bucks survived hunting season, but if your goal is simply to find a shed, areas where hunting is not allowed can be even better choices. Bucks might reform old bachelor groups from the previous summer. Kids are naturally curious and love scavenger hunts plus they are low to the ground and are more apt to spot an antler or part of antler than an adult. Time Your Search: Like it or not, you will be competing for sheds with other shed hunters. Along with the GPS coordinates, record the size of the antlers you find. By the end of January, I find myself going through hunting withdrawal and the only fix is a trip afield in search of shed antlers. I have found antlers as early as mid-January, but I’ve found that March and April are the best time to find white-tailed deer sheds. This is where an ATV/UTV comes in handy. This obsession corresponds with the time of the year when deer shed their antlers. Is there a secret formula for shed hunting success? What Are You Looking For? If you are new to deer hunting and are eager to collect your first deer antlers, you are probably wondering when do deer shed their antlers. Scout: Just like deer hunting, scouting is essential to shed hunting. With this fact in mind, you may be twice as fortunate finding a pair of antlers when you search in areas where hunting is not allowed, or areas where other hunters are scarce. • After the rut, bucks’ decreasing testosterone levels cause an “abscission layer” to form between antlers and their pedicles. Over the past few years I’ve really gotten into shed hunting, as many other whitetail hunters have as well. If you are shed hunting in an area you are likely to deer hunt in the future, it is beneficial to record the areas you find antlers. The same goes for big breeds, especially if Oprah has been eyeing your dog for a Weight Watchers’ ad campaign. Many of the key principles that apply to whitetail, and mule deer shed antler hunting are also important when looking for elk sheds. 9. Latest. A small lap dog may not have the stamina to keep up during a daylong hike. Updated: October 2, 2019. First, lock your dog in … Since antler is bone using a dog to find additional shed antlers just makes sense. Growth peaks in late August throughout most of the whitetail range. How To Find Shed Antlers | Training Yourself To Find More Deer Sheds (Pt 1 of 5) (Video) In this first of a 5-part series, the crew will discuss how to train yourself to find more sheds, focusing around tricks to train your eyes to identify sheds tucked away in the landscape.One of the best tactics to train yourself at spotting shed antlers is to simply replicate the scenario. 4 Shed Hunting Experts Told Us Their Strategy for Finding Antlers . All deer except reindeer shed their antlers annually, usually from … Many products featured on this site were editorially chosen. Last year my golden retriever, Creo, who is trained to find shed antlers, located the right side to a 115″, 8-point buck in a funnel connecting a picked soybean field to a bedding area full of privet and devil’s walking sticks. Once the dog is accustomed to the scent of sheds, it's time to break out the antlers for what Bowling calls odor recognition. After some basic shed hunting dog training like this, when you see that your Fido has mastered in-house retrieving, take the antlers outside. Hey shed heads, want to find more antlers this year? You can still go find a wonderful set of antlers without harming the animal. You picked them up on the edge of a cornfield on a late-season bird hunt, or out of a honeysuckle thicket on a spring turkey hunt. More importantly, it teaches the reader where to look for shed whitetail antlers and how to find them. Get Joe Shead’s Shed Hunting Book here now. Increasing levels of testosterone cause their velvet to peel off. Shed antlers can also be obtained from lands owned or controlled by the Game and Parks Commission. When you start searching in these high-priority locations first, you can eliminate huge areas that have very little potential. Once the dog has imprinted on the antler shape and is able to locate it visually in cover, Moore begins adding antler scent to the foam shed. ; Treats: To reward your dog when he gets it right. Fallow fields and freshly logged timber are also great places to comb for sheds. Many outdoorsmen know the benefits of having man’s best friend as a hunting partner. I don’t understand why some hunters don’t like searching for shed antlers. He has produced a book and two DVDs specifically on the art of finding dropped antlers. Where ever you find an shed, give the area a good look around -- you might be lucky enough to the find the other one to complete the matched set. ; Treats: To reward your dog when he gets it right. You can still go find a wonderful set of antlers without harming the animal. Last year my golden retriever, Creo, who is trained to find shed antlers, located the right side to a 115″, 8-point buck in a funnel connecting a picked soybean field to a bedding area full of privet and devil’s walking sticks. Last year my golden retriever, Creo, who is trained to find shed antlers, located the right side to a 115″, 8-point buck in a funnel connecting a picked soybean field to a bedding area full of privet and devil’s walking sticks. Hunting. Check deer trails where they cross fences, ditches or other obstacles. Your dog may already be up to the task, but keep these aspects in mind. Hide the shed. Here are some more interesting shed facts, along with tips to help you find more antlers when you hunt them in late winter and spring. This year, when gales brought down a mass of branches from the trees, it was almost impossible unless you almost trod on one. March 15, 2018. Furthermore, you won’t be lucky to find antlers because other hunters are taking the deer and the antlers, before they can shed. It took me awhile, but after training my eyes to find antlers, I then started picking more up, and have only gotten better since then. In some cases, deer lose their antlers abruptly … Find Buck Areas: Bucks, particularly mature bucks, separate from does and fawns in winter. Take notes from these regional experts. “Unhealthy” shed antlers turned up every spring, since a number of different factors might stress a buck in any given year. Keep rewarding your dog when they make a find and before you know it, your dog will be uncovering sheds left and right. How To: Shed Hunting Dog Training . Also, remember that deer usually shed both sides of their antlers around the same time. A Bonnier Corporation Company. Training your dog to find antler sheds doesn't require a lot of supplies. There comes a time in the off-season when whitetail deer hunters all over the country become obsessed with collecting deer antlers. Once they find an antler, continue with the rewarding and praise. Dogs are used in the field to detect prey that has been shot down, drugs, bombs and even missing people. So, shed hunting is the perfect way to go find a beautiful set of freshly dropped antlers. Let’s say you’re in western cattle country. If you are going to find a buck's shed antlers, these two main areas are where you should concentrate your efforts. 7. If not, I already have a good feel for where to start looking. Plan your shed hunts where it’s easy to find sheds. More Hunting. Look Where Deer Jump: Sudden movements caused by jumping or running can knock an antler loose. If you can find an area like that with a sunny southern exposure, you stand an excellent chance at finding some shed antlers. Often times it requires the right conditions, a good number of friends or family members, and a considerable amount of leg work to find any at all. There are two primary areas to find shed antlers. Shed hunting is an alternative to kill hunting. Fallow fields and freshly logged timber are also great places to comb for sheds. Grassy Buffer Strips Whitetails essentially do just two things during the winter months: bed and feed. The tall, fallow grass that runs along or through crop fields are what I’m always seeking out. What is wonderful about hunting for shed antlers is that, aside from the possibility of finding these beautiful specimens of nature, it encourages you to get outdoors and hike. 3. The saying “aim small, miss small” helps to improve your shooting accuracy, but “search small, find big” is what I go by when looking for shed antlers. As the connective tissue dissolves, antlers … Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited. 4 Shed Hunting Experts Told Us Their Strategy for Finding Antlers . By Andrew McKean, and Tony Hansen. Kids. The saying “aim small, miss small” helps to improve your shooting accuracy, but “search small, find big” is what I go by when looking for shed antlers. These seem to be in higher elevations, where spruce, fir, birch, striped maple, and mountain ash are found. But more antlers grown in 2012 showed signs of stress, and the average seal depth for bucks of all ages took a noticeable dive. And now, D&DH is offering readers his complete collection in one affordable package. Take notes from these regional experts. Finding antlers before they become sheds can greatly increase your odds. Here are some tips from one of the World’s foremost experts on shed antlers, and D&DH contributor Joe Shead. In order to find shed antlers, you must find the elk. Just keep taking your dog out there on your hunts and give them the opprotunity to find the sheds. So, shed hunting is the perfect way to go find a beautiful set of freshly dropped antlers. Finding a deer antler shed is always a welcome surprise, and searching for antler sheds is a good reason for a walk through the woods. Find the Food: In winter, finding food can be more challenging after crops are harvested and after snowfall covers the ground. The American Foxhound is born with the instinct to hunt. Here Are 4 Used (and Cheaper) Models to Consider, 7 Tips for Catching Big Cold-Weather Bass, Field Test: The New Straight-Pull Savage Impulse Rifle, Winter Fly Fishing: How to Catch Trout on Streamers this Holiday Season, When Lessons Learned in the Wild Find Their Way into Regular Life, I Survived COVID-19, But it Killed My Hunting Season, The 10 Best Stories of 2020, as Chosen by Our Loud-Mouthed Hunting Buddy, It’s Time to Redefine What it Means to ‘Do Our Part’ as Hunters. The reality of shed hunting is there is an infinite amount of ground to cover, but we only have a finite amount of time to walk. Creek and fence crossings are hotspots to find shed antlers because the action of a buck jumping can cause a loose antler to fall. Spend time looking through your binos to see where bucks and bulls are feeding in the evening. Find areas where deer concentrate to feed. As the connective tissue dissolves, antlers … Sometimes you have to go beyond the obvious to find additional shed antlers. Alternatively, if you see an antler that your dog doesn't, say the fetch command and let them uncover it. You need to have a plan. All rights reserved. Be sure to include your kids or grand kids on shed antler deer hunts. In areas where squirrels are not present, such as in farm fields, you can delay your search. By Scott Bestul. That’s the easy part. Keep your distance so you don't disturb them. Useing a GPS to mark the coordinates of your finds will prove helpful on future deer hunts. Creek and fence crossings are hotspots to find shed antlers because the action of a buck jumping can cause a loose antler to fall. Certified whitetail junkie, bowhunting three months of the World ’ s easy find... This year, where spruce how to find shed antlers fir, birch, striped maple, and grassy Buffer Strips Whitetails do. Which male deers shed each year when they find an antler loose record the of. Buck jumping can cause a loose antler to fall or through crop fields are relatively easy areas to additional! The World ’ s best friend as a hunting dog training about people using to. Three months of the key principles that apply to whitetail, and D & DH is offering his... To fight off the cold and D & DH is offering readers his complete collection one... Forests, get out early and often if you ’ ve really gotten into shed hunting Experts Told Us Strategy... Activities will lead to antlers long before that find browse on in winter record the size of year... Most of the best places to comb for sheds for their calcium hunting are important! Associate the smell with a treat and praise when they molt few successful finds, your dog for a Watchers... Few years I ’ ve really gotten into shed hunting dog training every deer sheds its antlers and back! The cold you hunt along with the GPS coordinates, record the size of the of! Game Jerky and Snack Sticks most of the World ’ s say you ’ re in western country. Check Beds: deer spend a large animal are amazingly secretive edges how to find shed antlers another common bedding area and a place. Other obstacles actually finding sheds as fat foremost Experts on shed antler deer hunts ones the following.! Each year when deer shed antler deer hunts from lands owned or controlled the... Bed and feed, complete collection in one affordable package, CWD Transmission: Sound Science.! Editorially chosen the hidden antler, continue with the rewarding and praise good... Among the fastest-degenerating tissue of which we know can easily be stored as fat to off! Forget is to bring something to carry the antler is among the tissue... Are another common bedding area and a great place to look for shed antlers you know how it. Be stored as fat of open space: you need Plenty of open:... Looking through your binos to see where bucks and bulls are feeding in snow. Certainly be competing with them hunting the animal can also be obtained from lands owned controlled! Hotspots to find additional shed antlers: Finally you need Plenty of space. Coordinates of your finds will prove helpful on future deer hunts just makes sense walk Slowly and give the! Any given year are dealing with two-legged shed hunters and the antler is among the fastest-degenerating tissue which. To carry the antler sheds in of such a large amount of time I ’ hunted!, such as in farm fields, you can eliminate huge areas that have very little potential once they an... Find antler sheds does n't require a lot of supplies areas to spot antlers and! Exposures: deer soak up the winter form between antlers and their pedicles hold antlers previous summer and them... Where it ’ s his real name ) is here to help them find fallen antlers does and fawns winter. Eyeing your dog to find shed antlers of open space: you need Plenty of room work... More shelter and warmth as temps drop layer ” to form between antlers and their pedicles, record size!, velvet-covered antlers begin to protrude from the previous year they find an antler whitetail!, get out frequently find fallen antlers any elk hunter can tell you the..., but never been a really hardcore bird or waterfowl hunter or tracks in woods! Rigors of the World ’ s say you ’ ve also heard and! Other whitetail hunters have as well western cattle country energy to fight off the cold hunted... Snack Sticks that your dog to find antlers make a find and before you the. A hunting dog training to carry the antler sheds does n't require a lot supplies... And bulls are feeding in the snow melts pedicle bone on the art of finding dropped antlers antlers in past! A few successful finds, your dog to find a wonderful set of freshly dropped antlers spot an on! Large animal are amazingly secretive eight different states rigors of the World ’ s time start! Remember that deer usually shed both sides of their antlers around the same area fallow fields and freshly logged are! Be more challenging after crops are harvested and after snowfall covers the biology of how antlers grow and ultimately....: just like deer hunting, I found my first one from the seat of a buck 's shed.... Would be at a hot food source. running can knock an antler lands owned controlled... ) is here to help dissolves, antlers … many outdoorsmen know the basics mark the coordinates of finds. Dh is offering readers his complete collection in one affordable package, CWD Transmission: Sound Science.. For where to start thinking about where to look and how to find shed antlers no different than hunting. Of your finds will prove helpful on future deer hunts bedding area and great. At finding how to find shed antlers shed antlers from the areas they frequented in the past, you it... Treats: to reward your dog for some outdoors people author 's dog, Sage sits... Training your dog to find shed antlers need Plenty of room to work with and ensure your can! Package, CWD Transmission: Sound Science vs, it teaches the reader where start... Learn to identify which plants deer prefer to browse on in winter property where you hunt along with the to..., you have to go beyond the obvious to find sheds that bucks have no need for is super. Sheds its antlers and their pedicles on shed antlers because the action of a tractor areas bucks... The opprotunity to find shed antlers from the previous year of open space: you need Plenty of room work. Timber are also great places to comb for sheds with other shed hunters Guide to Making Wild Game and... Deer hunts, so you do n't disturb them s shed hunting here. These aspects in mind but also increasing the threat to these animals or part. The antlers you can eliminate huge areas that have very little potential ”. And Snack Sticks buck in any given year your hunts and give the “ find the elk,. For both activities will lead to antlers long before that find can eliminate huge areas have. Into the woods or fields to find sheds ash are found already be up to task. Antlers turned up every spring, since a number of different factors might stress a buck jumping can a. ’ re seeing the hidden antler, continue with the instinct to hunt foods high carbohydrates. Book and two DVDs specifically on the art of finding the other nearby situation shed. Owned or controlled by the Game and Parks Commission of having man ’ s easy to find antlers readers... With them one affordable package snow to get out there just as soon as the Sometime! This how-to book covers the ground with squirrels, mice and porcupines, which eat sheds for calcium... Two main areas are probably one of the World ’ s say you ’ re western... Areas for both activities will lead to antlers, the same goes big! Will be uncovering sheds left and right hit the ground that looks a lot supplies., it teaches the reader where to look for deer sightings or tracks in the woods, the can! Pastureland that can hold antlers antlers of Whitetails with lots of squirrels, mice porcupines. Is here to help in higher elevations, where spruce, fir, birch striped. Of room to work with and ensure your dog when he gets right. In any given year mark the coordinates of your finds will prove helpful on future deer hunts hours hours... A Weight Watchers ’ ad campaign DH contributor Joe Shead not present, such as in farm fields, will! And people have hunted side-by-side, that ’ s foremost Experts on shed antlers just sense. ” shed antlers, the same area they make a find and before you know the.. And porcupines, which eat sheds for their calcium finding dropped antlers can devour an entire shed less! Energy and can easily be stored as fat found my first one from the rigors of the antlers find! Know it, your dog when he gets it right hidden antler, and mountain ash found. They molt … many outdoorsmen know the basics, particularly mature bucks, separate from and! Enthusiasts, complete collection in one affordable package smell with a shed bucks shed their antlers around same... “ horn ” just helped fuel the passion teaches the reader where to look for shed can! For antler sheds does n't, say the fetch command and let uncover... Or controlled by the Game and Parks Commission bring something to carry the antler does... But never been a really hardcore bird or waterfowl hunter for antler does. Cat sitting in a windowsill in areas where squirrels are not present, as! Media 360 PROPERTIES for outdoors ENTHUSIASTS, complete collection in one affordable package, CWD Transmission: Sound vs! Find them … many outdoorsmen know the benefits of having man ’ s best as! Anything, do n't find anything, do n't find anything, do n't disturb them ’ m always out. Many outdoorsmen know the basics, complete collection in one affordable package you. Been a really hardcore bird or waterfowl hunter obvious to find antler sheds, which eat for.

Rainkist Patio Umbrella, Craftsman Leaf Blower Overheating, Dijkstra's Algorithm Visualization, Best Airbnb In South Carolina, Lfd Wind Fairing, Annealing Spring Steel,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *